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三组数据表明中国在世界经济中的影响力不断增大经济
2020-01-07 23:42  www.equintos.com

  日本《经济学人》周刊1月7日(提前出版)一期发表题为《从数字看中国的影响力》的文章称,一系列亮眼数据凸显出中国在世界经济中的影响力日益增大,中国经济的前景越来越受瞩目。文章编译如下:

A series of bright data highlights china's growing influence in the world economy and its growing economic outlook, according to an article published on january 7th (in advance) by japan's economist, entitled \"the influence of china in terms of numbers.\" The article is compiled as follows:

  首先,中国国内生产总值(GDP)在全球所占份额增大。2018年,中国的GDP约为万亿美元,占全球GDP(约85万亿美元)的%,而美国在全球GDP中占比为%。虽然中国所占份额不及美国,但已远远超过日本所占%的份额。而且,上述变化发生的速度很快,以致目前跟10年前的情况截然不同。在世界金融危机爆发的2008年,中国GDP在全球所占份额为%,低于日本。而距今10年之后,中国可能会赶上美国。

First, China's gross domestic product has grown in global share. In 2018, China's GDP was about $trillion, or% of global GDP (or about $85 trillion), compared with the US's percentage of global GDP. Although China's share is less than that of the United States, it has far exceeded Japan's share. Moreover, these changes have taken place so quickly that they are so different from what they were 10 years ago. In 2008, when the world financial crisis erupted, China's GDP accounted for% of the world, less than Japan's. After a decade, China may catch up with the US.

  第二,中国作为“世界工厂”的影响力增大。譬如,从智能手机在全球的份额看,尽管韩国三星电子公司居世界第一,美国苹果公司居世界第二,但第三位之后有华为、小米、OPPO等多家中国企业。而在10多年前,世界前五名中还没有中国企业。可以说,格局已经彻底改变。而且,全球制造业对中国直接投资的增加,导致中国所获投资在全球居于领先。中国超过日本的高储蓄率也是促进投资扩大的原因。

Second, China's influence as a \"world factory\" has grown. For example, in terms of the global share of smartphones, although South Korea's Samsung Electronics Co. ranks first in the world, and Apple Inc. ranks second in the world, the third is followed by a number of Chinese companies, including Huawei, Xiaomi and OPPO. More than a decade ago, there were no Chinese companies in the world's top five. It can be said that the pattern has been completely changed. Moreover, the increase in global manufacturing direct investment in China has led to China's leading investment globally. China's high saving rate over Japan is also contributing to the expansion of investment.

  第三,进口力量增大。20年前,中国的进口额只相当于美国的15%;而在10年前,中国的进口额已不低于美国进口额的50%。最近几年,中国的进口额更是增加到了美国进口额的80%左右。

Third, the import force increases. Twenty years ago, China's imports amounted to only 15% of that of the United States; a decade ago, China's imports amounted to no less than 50% of that of the United States. In recent years, china's imports have increased to about 80% of u.s. imports.

  中国进口力量扩大,也因为中国政府推动从投资主导型转为消费主导型的结构改革。中国的个人消费只相当于美国的大约四分之一,但在过去10年里的增长率已经达到年均%。2018年中国的汽车销量为2808万辆,远远超过美国的1730万辆。

The expansion of China's import forces is also due to the government's push to move from investment-led to consumer-led structural reforms. China's personal consumption is only about a quarter of that of the US, but has grown at an average annual rate of% over the past decade. China sold 28.08 million cars in 2018, well over 17.3 million in the United States.

  上述惊人发展得以实现,有赖于科学技术力量的提升。比如,2018年美国的国际专利申请数约为万件,中国的申请件数也达到了万件左右。虽然美国仍居第一,但中国已经超越日本。中国要在科学技术力量上赶上美国还有一段距离,但中国技术革新吸引世界各地关注的趋势不会停止。

These amazing developments depend on the advancement of scientific and technological power. For example, the number of international patent applications in the United States in 2018 is about 10,000, and the number of applications in China is about 10,000. Although the United States still ranks first, China has overtaken Japan. China is still a long way from catching up with the United States in science and technology, but the trend of technological innovation around the world will not stop.